Over the last decade or more the Sankey diagram started appearing all over the Globe. The Sankey Diagram, as far as energy is concerned, provides flow chart of how energy starts in crude form and ends up as consumption. Typically on the left hand side you will have oil, petrol, coal, gas, nuclear hydro, all kind of energy sources in their crude form and they move to the right side of the screen they are processed and used in different ways.
In Power Plants 2/3 of the Energy which is input is lost in conversion to the electricity.
Refineries consume crude oil and produce petroleum for cars, Kerosene for aircrafts and most of the waste is then used in the Petro- Chemical Complexes to produce various raw material for the Plastics and Man-Made Fiber Industry.
Similarly Oil and Coal is also used in Industry and help in conversion of raw iron ore or Calcium carbonate to Steel, Cement and Other Materials and Products.
At present if we do not take out all these losses the Global Primary Fuel Energy Consumption comes to about 20,000 MToe (Million Tons of Oil Equivalent). The Consumption after considering these losses, is about 10,000 MToe. This Converts to ~120,000 TWhrs/yr.
If we have to replace all this Energy Globally today, we need to produce about 120,000 TWhrs of Electricity per year to eliminate Global Pollution, and that is the Challenge for the Future.